25 Important Medicinal Plants in DEMAND

AONLACHANDANKALMEGHSATAVARI
ASWAHAGANDHACHIRATAKATKISHANKAPUSHPI
ASHOKAGILOEKOKUMSAFED MUSLI
ATISGUGGALKERTHSENNA
BAIBERANGINDIAN BARBERYLIQORICE 
BAELISABGOLLONG PEPPER 
BRAHMIJATAMANSIMADHUNASHINI 

 

1. AONLA

1.Name of Medicinal PlantEmblica officinalis Gaertn
2.FamilyEuphorbiaceae

A deciduous tree, found in deciduous forests of the country upto 1350 m. on hills. Often cultivated.

3.Area1300 ha
4.Production88200 t
5.Important StatesUP, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Maharashtra
6.Cultural Practices

i.Varieties/Types/Clones released/identified

Banarasi, Chakaiya, Francis, Kanchan, Krishna, Balwant, NA-6, NA-7, NA-9, Anand-2 and BS-1.
 ii. Propagation methods and planting timeModified ring, patch and shield budding as well as soft wood grafting.

June to August

 iii.Fertilizer dozes1000 gm N, 500 gm P2O2 and 750 gm K 2O per plant/year. The fertilizer should be given in two split doses viz. Sep – Oct and April – May.
 iv.Irrigation scheduleIrrigation to young plantation at 10 days interval during the summer. To fruit bearing plantations, first irrigation should be given just after manuring and fertilization and then at 15 days intervals after fruit set (April) till onset of monsoon. Avoid irrigation during flowering period.
 v. Diseases, pests and their control:Diseases/causitive/Organism/agent

------------------------------

Aonla rust

(Ravenellia emblica)

Fruit rot

(Pencillum islandlium)

Necrosis (Boron

Deficiency)

Bark eating caterpillar

(Inderbela tetraonis)

Shoot gall maker (Betousa stylophora)

Aphid (Cerciaphis emblica)

Scale insect

Anar butterfly

(Virachola isocrates)

Control measures

-------------------------------

Spray (twice) Dithane Z

78(0.2%) during July- September.

Treating the fruits with

Nacl solutions.

Spray of 0.5% - 0.6% borax in Sept–October

Months.

Injecting kerosene oil/

Dichlorovols or Endo-

Sulfan (0.05%) in holes and plugging with mud

Galled twigs should be pruned. Spray of 0.05% monocrotophos during rainy season

Spraying of dimethoate

@ 0.03%

Application of mono-

Crotophos @ 0.05%

Remove and destroy all the affected fruits.

7.Planting time

i) Rainy season

ii) Spring season

July to September

Mid of January to March

8.Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

The fruit is rich source of vitamins and minerals. High vitamin C content (750-850 mg/100 gram pulp)
9.Post Harvest ManagementDifferent varieties mature at different period e.g Chakaiya (January), Banarasi (October end), Krishna (December) and Francis (mid November – December). Large size fruits (4 cm. & above) free from blemishes are used for preserve, candy and pickle. Small sized fruits are used for chavanprash making and defective fruits are used for Trifala making. Generally, basket for pigeon pea stem and gunny bag of 40-50 kg capacity with newspaper as liners are used for packing of aonla fruits. However, wooden crate with polythene lines is most suitable for packing and long distance transportation.

Aonla fruits can be stored upto 15-20 days at low temperature (10-15o C). However Chakaiya can be stored upto 45 and 75 days in 10% and 15% salt solution respectively without any decay.

10.Cost of CultivationCost benefit ratio is 1:4. Pay back period is six years.
11.Internal consumption and export potentialExport potential yet to be exploited. Huge internal demand in ISM.
12.Action and usesAperient, aphrodisiac, astringent, digestive, diuretic, laxative, refrigerant and tonic. Useful in anaemia, jaundice, dyspepcia, haemorrhagic disorders, bilionsness, diabetes, asthma, bronchitis. An Ayurvedic preparation Chyavanprasha is very much valued for its restorative action
13.Compound PreparationsChyavanprasha, Dhatri Lauha, Amalki Rasayana.

 

 

 

2. ASWAHAGANDHA

1.Name of Medicinal PlantWithania somnifera Dunal
2.FamilySolanaceae
3.Yield

Plant Part

300-400 kg roots/ha + 50-75 kg seeds/

ha

4.Actual IngredientsWithaferin, Anaferin, Tropine and many other Alkaloides and Steriodes
5.Important StatesMadhya Pradesh and Rajasthan
6.Cultural Practices

i)Varieties/Types/Clones

released/identified

Jawahar Asgandh – 20, Jawahar Asgandh 134 and Rakshita
 ii)Propagation methods and planting timeDirect sowing of seeds (Broadcasting)

Planting time in 3rd week of August to September.

 iii) Fertilizer dogesThe crop is mainly grown on residual fertility. Hence, no fertilizers applied
 iv) Irrigation scheduleRainfed
 iv) Diseases, pests and their controlMajor disease is damping off, seedling rotting, seedling blight. Seed treatment with Captan 3 g/kg seed is recommended.
7.Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Alkaloids and Steroids
8.Post Harvest ManagementThe crop is ready in six month, harvesting starts from January and continues upto March. Average yield 400-500 kg of root and 50 kg seed/ha. Cleaning, drying and grading of roots.
9.Cost of cultivation

(Cost : benefit ratio)

About Rs.1000/ha and gross return about Rs.2800 (CB ratio 1:2:8)
10.Internal consumption and export potentialHuge internal consumption also being exported.
11.Any other remarksImmunomodulator/Rasayan drug, general tonic in arthritis.
12.Action and usesAlterative, aphrodisiac, tonic, deobstruent, diuretic, narcotic, abortifacient. Used in rheumatism, consumption , debility from old age.
13.Parts usedRoot
14.Compound preparationAshwagandhadi churna, Ashwagandha rasayana, Ashwagandha Ghrit, Ashwagandharishta

 

3. ASHOKA

1.Name of Medicinal PlantSaraca asoca (roxb.) Dc Wild.
2.FamilyLeguminosae
3.Local NameAshoka
4.Habit and HabitatA small evergreen tree 6-9 m. high, found wild along steams or in the shade of evergreen forests. It occurs almost throughout India up to an altitude of 720 m in the Centre and Eastern Himalayas & khasi, Garo & Lushai hills. It is also found in the Andaman islands. Leaves pari-pinnate, 15-20 cm long, leaflets 6-12, oblong, lanceolate, flowers organe or orange-yellow, very fragrant, pods flat, leathery, seeds 4-8, ellipsoid-oblong.
5.Important HabitatHimalayas, Bengal and Western Peninsula.
6.Cultural Practices

i.Propagation methods and

planting time

ii.Irrigation Schedule

Seeds. Seedlings are raised and planted in rainy season

Rainfed

7.Biochemical analysis

(Active Ingredients)

Haematoxylin, tannins and glycoside, leucopelargonidin and leucoeyanidin have been extracted from the barks
8.Post Harvest ManagementBark is removed and sun dried for use in preparation of various herbal medicines.
9.UtilisationThe bark is reported to stimulate the uterus, making the contractions more frequent and prolonged without producing tonic contraction as in the case of pituitary ergot. It is also reported to cure biliousness dyspepsia, dysentery, colic, piles and pimples. Leaves possess blood purifying properties. Flowers used in dysentery and diabetes.
10.Plant usedBark
11.Actual IngredientsTannin and Catechol
12.Internal consumption and export potentialInternal consumption is quite high in pharmaceutical industries. Good export potential
13.Action and usesAstringent, used in menorrhagia and uterine affections, internal bleeding, bleeding haemorrhoids and haemorrhagic dysentry.
14.Compound PreparationsAshokarishta, Ashokaghrita

 

4.ATIS

1.Name of Medicinal PlantAconitum heterophyllum Wall
2.FamilyRanunculaceae
3.Use of

Plant Part

Actual Ingredients

Root

Alkaloids (atisine 0.4%)

4.Important HabitatsCommon in Alpine and subalpine zone of the Himalayas from Indus to Kumaon from 6000 to 15000 ft. from the sea level.
5.Cultural PracticesLocal clones

Propagation through seeds in rainy season

6.Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Root alkaloids: hetrophylsive, hetrophylline and hetrophyllidine, heteratisine, artisine, altidine, F – dihydroatisine, Isatisine, Hetisine, Hetidines and Hetisinone.
7.Post Harvest ManagementRoots are dried and powdered
8.Cost of cultivationNot exploited commercially.
9.Internal consumption and exportsRoots are exported
10.Action and UsesAntipyretic, antiperiodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, tonic. Used in diarrhoea, indigestion, cough, troubles during dentition in children.
11.Compound PreparationsBalachaturbhadra, Ativishadi Churna

 

5. BAIBERANG

1.Name of Medicinal PlantEmbelia ribes Burm. F
2.FamilyMyrsinaceae
3.Habit and HabitatA scandant shrub, reported to be distributed in the hilly parts of India, Assam and Tamil Nadu upto to 1700 m.
4.Plant Part usedFruits
5.Actual IngredientsEmbelin (2.5-3.1%)
6.Cultural Practices

i)Varieties/Types/Clones

released/identified

Local types
 ii)Propagation methods and

planting time

Seeds are sown in rainy season
7.Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients

Embelin, raponone, homoembelin and homorapanone, quercitol, christembine.
8.Post Harvest ManagementFully mature fruits are harvested and dried in sun.
9.Action and usesAnthelmintic, alterative, astringent, carminative, stimulant and tonic. Used in colic, constipation, flatulence and worms.
10.Compound PreparationsVidangadi churna, Vidanga lauha, Vidanga taila.

 

6. BAEL

1.Name of Medicinal PlantAegle marmelos L.Corr.
2.FamilyRutaceae
3.Habit and HabitatA small or medium sized tree, distributed throughout the country.
4.Yield7500 t
 Plant Part usedFruits and leaves (200-400 fruits/tree)
 Actual IngredientsNon reducing sugars, essential oil, abscisic acid and marmelosin.
5.Cultural Practices

i.Varieties/Types/Clones

Released/identified

Some well known types have been named according to fruit shape and locality e.g Mirzapuri, Darogaji, Ojha, Rampuri etc. Some improved selections are: NB-4, NB-5, NB-9.
 ii.Propagation methods and

and planting time

Vegetative propagation by Patch budding in June-July.
 iii.Fertilizer doseFor 8 years old and onwards trees, 80 kg FYM, 480 g N, 320 g P and 480 g K/ tree/year is recommended.
 iv.IrrigationIn the initial years, plants require frequent irrigation. Once established, light irrigation should be given after manuring and fertilization and proper soil moisture may be maintained after fruit set.
 v.Diseases, pests and their

control

Name Control Measures

-----------------------------------------------------

Bacterial shot Spray of streptomycin

Hole sulphate @ 500 ppm.

(Xanthomonas controls this disease.

Bilvae)

Fruit canker Precaution should be

taken so that fruit is

Not hurt during plucking

Also during transporta-

tion, the fruit should

Be packed tightly.

6.Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Protein (1.8%), Fat (0.39%), minerals (1.7%), Carbohydrate (31.8%), Carotena (55 mg/100 fruit), thiamine (0.13 mg/100g), riboflavin (1.190 mg/100).
7.Post Harvest ManagementAt the time of harvest, tree become leafless and fruits get completely exposed. The fruits are picked individually from the tree keeping a portion of fruit stalk. Fruits are usually packed in gunny bags, baskets or wooden crates using newspaper as cushioning material. Fruits are quite hardy and they can be stored well at ambient temperature. However, fruits can be stored for 12 weeks at 9oC.
8.Internal consumption and export potentialFruits are mostly consumed in our country. Export potential to be explored.
9.Cost of cultivationCost-benefit ratio is 1:3 and pay back period is six years.
10.Action and usesAromatic, astringent, carminative, cooling, laxative, febrifuge, stomachic; used in colitis, diarrhoea, dysentery and flatulence. Root is also an ingredient of Dashmoola.
11.Parts usedFruits, root bark, leaves, rind of the ripe fruit, flowers.
12.Compound PreparationsBilwapanchaka Kwath, Bilwandi Churna, Dashmoola rishta, Dashmools Kwath.
13.Any other remarksPresence of marmelosin in fruits has anthelminitic activity.

 

7. BRAHMI

1.Name of Medicinal PlantBacopa monnieri L
2.FamilyScrophulariaceae
3.Yield

Plant part

Actual Ingredients

Whole plant especially leaves (100 kg dry herb/ha)

Alkaloid, brahmine

4.Habit & HabitatA small herb found throughout India upto 4000 feet. Plant an annual, creeper is mostly found near water-logged place.
5.Cultural Practices

i. Varieties/Types/Clones

Released/identified

Subodhak and Pragyashakti
 ii. Propagation methods and

planting time

By runners and by seeds,

In rainy season

 iii.Fertilizer doses100 kg N/ha in three splits; 60 kg P205

60 kg K2O/ha at the time of planting

 iv.IrrigationAfter sowing/transplating
6.Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Plant contains bacosides A & B, bacogenins, stigmasterol, stigmaotanol B-sitosterol. Leaves give herpestine. Monnierin is also isolated from the plant.
7.Post Harvest ManagementHarvesting in October-November
8.Cost of cultivation

Gross return

Net return

Rs.35,000 / ha

Rs.2,00,000 / ha

Rs. 1,65,000 / ha

9.Internal consumption and export potentialHaving internal and external demand.
10.UsesUsed as nervine tonic/memory enhancer
11.Compound PreparationsBrahmighrit, Sarasvatarisht, Brahmivati.

 

8. CHANDAN

1.Name of Medicinal PlantSantalum album Linn
2.FamilySantalaceae
3.Actual IngredientsEssential oil (1.5-6%)
4.DistributionA small evergreen tree, distributed in dry scrub forests of Salem, Mysore,
Coorg, Coimbatore, Nilgiris upto 900 m. altitude. Also reported to be found in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamilnadu.
5.Cultural Practices

i.Varieties/Types/Clones released/identified

Local type
 ii.Propagation methods and planting timeBy seed and grafting. Seedlings are raised in polythene bags and plants during rainy season.
 iii.Ferilizer dozes20t FYM/ha. Fertilizer requirement not yet worked out.
 iv. Irrigation scheduleRainfed
 v.Diseases, pests and their controlSpike disease is common which is caused by mycoplasma. Under severe infection, the whole plant dies. Jassids (Pentacephala nigrilines), Fulgoroides and sandal wood beetle are important insects reported to cause considerable loss.
6.Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Alphasantalal, beta santalol and alphs and beta santalene are the main constituents in the oil.
7.Post Harvest ManagementSandal wood trees are harvested at the age of 30-60 years. The soft wood is first removed, the hard wood is chipped and then converted into powder in a mill. The powder is soaked in water for 48 hours and then distilled. Distillation takes place in 48 hours. The oil is rectified by redistillation and filtration.
8.Internal consumption and export potentialExport of sandal wood chips and oil and dust was 552.2 and 29.5 t respectively during 1995-96. Besides our internal consumption in cosmetics and perfumery industries is also high.
9.Action and useAntiphlogistic, antiseptic, cooling and styptic. The wood round up with water into a fine parts is commonly applied to local infammations, to the temples in fever and to skin diseases to allay heat and pruritus. It is internally administered in cystitis, gonorrhoea, haemorrhagia, urinary disorders and gleet.
10.Compound PreparationsChandanasava.

 

9. CHIRATA

1.Name of Medicinal PlantSwertia chirata syn.

S.Chirata Buch – Ham.

2.FamilyGentianaceae
3.Use

Plant part

Actual Ingredients

Whole plant used

Alkaloids

4.Habit and HabitatAn erect herb, found in temperate Himalayas between 1300-3000 m. from Kashmir to Bhutan and Khasia hills. It is scarcely available in the market and generally substituted by Andrograpis paniculata Nees or other species of Swertia.
5.Cultural Practices

i. Propagation methods and planting time

Propagated by seeds. The seeds are sown in the nursery and then seedlings are transplanted in the field.
 ii.Fertilizer dosesFYM is ideal for these plants
 iii.DiseaseSome species of this genus are reported to serve as alternate host of blister rust of Pinus.
6.Biochemical analysis

(Active ingradients)

Plant contains alkaloids – gentianine, gentiocrucine, enicoflaving, swer – chirin. Plant is antiinflammatory, swerchirin – antimalarial, hypoglycaemic.
7.Post Harvest ManagementDrying of plants
8.Internal consumption and export potentialHuge demand in ISM and was imported at a tune of 58.22 t valued at Rs.14.61 lakhs in 1995-96.
9.Action and usesBitter, tonic, stomachic, laxative, febrifuge. Used in anorexia, biliary disorders, cough, constipation, fevers, skin diseases, worms.
10.Compound PreparationKiratadi Kwath, Sudarshan Churna.

 

10. GILOE

1.Name of Medicinal PlantTinospora cordifolia wild miers, ex hook
2.FamilyMeninspermaceae
3.Local NameGiloe
4.Habit & HabitatA large, glabrous, deciduous climbing shrub found throughout tropical India. Ascending to an altitude of 300 m. Stem rather succulent with long filiform flesh aerial roots from the branches. Bark gray-brown or creamy white. Leaves membranous, cordate with a broad sinus. Flowers small, yellow or greenish yellow, appearing when the plant is leafless. Drupes ovoid, glossy, succulent, red. Seed curved.
5.PropagationThe Plant is sometimes cultivated as ornamental & propagated by cuttings.
6.UtilisationThe plant is used in general debilities, dyspepsia, fever & urinary disease. The leaves are good as fodder for cattle and rich in proteins and fairly in calcium and phosphorous.

A decoction of the leaves is used for the treatment of gout. The young leaves bruised in milk, are used as a liniment in erysipeals. The leaves are beaten with honey and applied to ulcers. Dried & powdered fruit mixed with ghee or honey is used as a tonic and also in the treatment of Jaundice and rheumatism. The root is a powerful emetic and used for visceral obstructions. Its watery extract is used in leprosy.

7.Plant part usedStem and Leaves
8.Active IngredientsAlkaloid
9.Cultural Practices

i.Varieties/Types/Clones

Released/identified

ii.Propagation methods and planting time

Locally grown

Stem cuttings. Planting time is rainy season.

 iii.Crop durationPerennial
10.Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Tinosporon, Tinosporic acid, Tinosporol, Giloin, gilonin, berberine, cordifol, Tinosporidine.
11.Post Harvest ManagementThe stem and leaves are harvested and dried in sun.
12.Internal consumption & export potentialMostly consumed by Ayurvedic pharmaceuticals
13.ActionRejuvinator, astringent, antipyretic, blood purifier and curative of dermatosis.
14.UsesGeneral debility, pyrexia, skin diseases, gout, rheumatic arthrites and spure.

 

11. GUGGAL

1.Name of Medicinal PlantCommiphora wightii

(Arn) Bhandari

2.FamilyBurseraceae
3.Yield

Plant Part

Actual Ingredients

700-900 g gum per plant

Tree yield an oliogum-resin-guggulipid

4.Habit and HabitatA shrub or small tree, reported to be found in Karnataka, Rajasthan, Deccan and Gujarat.
5.Cultural Practices

i.Varieties/Types/Clones

released/identified

ii.Propagation methods

iii.Fertilizer doses

iv.Irrigation Schedule

v.Diseases, pests and their

controlq

Local types

Plants raised (about 80% success) by cutting.

Application of 5 kg FYM and 25-50 gm urea per bush per year.

Require moderate irrigation

Plants are affected by white ants, Cercospora leaf spot and bacterial leaf blight.

Control: Pits are filled with FYM and treated with BHC or aldrin to protect the new plants from white ants.

6.Harvesting and yieldPlants attain normal height and girth after 8-10 years of growth when they are ready for tapping of the gum by shallow incision on the bark between December and March.
7.Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Gum resin contains guggulsteraes Z and E guggulsterols, two diterpenoids – a terpene, hydrocarbon named cembrne A and B, a cliterpene – alcohol – mukulol 3 camphorone and cambrene
8.Action and usesCarminative, antispasmodic, disphoretic, ecbolic, antisuppurative, aphrodisiac, emmenagogue. Gum resin is commonly used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
9.Compound PreparationsYogarajaguggulu, Kaishoreguggulu, Chandraprabha vati.
10.MarketingGum – resin is in great demand.

 

12. INDIAN BARBERY

1.Name of Medicinal PlantBerberis aristata DC
2.FamilyBerberidaceae
3.Local NameChitra, Rasaut
4.Habit & HabitatAn erect spinous shrub, 2 – 6 m. high, often forming gregarious patches, pale yellowish-brown bark, closely and rather deeply furrowed. Flowers are golden-yellow.

It occurs in the Himalayas between 2000 – 3000 m & also in Nilgiri Hills.

5.Plant part usedRoot bark, stem, wood fruit.
6.Actual IngradientsBarberine
7.Important StatesAssam, Bihar and Himalayan Region
8.Cultural Practices

i.Varieties/Types/Clones

Released/identified

Local clones
9.PropagotionPropogation is from seeds, self sown in nature. Seedlings or cuttings can be taken during spring season after the berries are over. Layering is also recommended since the cuttings present some difficulties.
10.Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Barberine (alkaloid)
11.Post Harvest ManagementDrying of barks
12.UtilisationThe use of the roots as a source of Rasaut has been referred to. The dried berries are edible. The root bark is rich in alkaloidal content. Berberine, the principal alkaloid can be easily obtained from the roots in the form of its salts.

Rasaut, mixed with butter and alum, or with opium & lime-juice & painted over the eyelids as a useful house-hold remedy in acute conjuctivities and in chronic ophthalkmia.

A yellow dye is obtained from root and the stem. The berberry dye has been largely used in tanning & colouring of leather.

13.Action and usesStomachic, astringent, tonic, antiperiodic, diaphoretic, antiphyretic, alerative, purgative. Used in menorrhagia, diarrhoea, jaundice, skin diseases, malarial fever.
14.Compound PreparationsDarvyadi Kwath, Darvyadi leha, Darvyadi taila.

 

13. ISABGOL

1.Name of Medicinal PlantPlantago Ovata Forsk
2.FamilyPlantaginaceae
3.Habit and HabitatA herb found in Punjab plains and low hills from Sutlej westwards, Sindh and Baluchistan.
4.Area under cultivation50000 ha
5.Production in tonnes48000 t of seeds
6.Yield

Plant part

Seeds 900-1500 kg/ha, Husk-225-375 kg/ha
7.Cultural Practices 
 i.Varieties/Types/Clones

released/identified

RI-87, RI-89, AMB-2, GI-1, GI-2, MI-4, MIB-121, HI-34, HI-2, HI-1, HI-5, NIHARIKA
 ii. Propagation methods and planting timeBy seeds

Mid October to Mid December

 iii. Fertilizers dosesN:P 50:25 kg/ha

(25 kg of N + full P as basal dose

25 Kg N as top dressing 35 DAS)

 iv.Irrigation schedule3 to 6 irrigations, Presowing, after sowing, Seedling stage, Spike formation stage, Flowering stage, Seed development stage depending upon the soil type and agro climatic condition.
 v. Diseases, pests and their controlDowny mildew and Powdery mildew: Dithane M-45 or Dithane Z-78 @ 2.0 to 2.5 g/lit or Bordeaux mixture 6:3:100 for downy mildew and Karathane W.D. (0.2%) for Powdery mildew 6:3:100 for downy mildew, Karathane W.D (0.2%) for Powdery mildew.

Wilt : Wilt disease is also observed which can be controlled by seed treatment with Bavistin or Benlate 2.5g/kg of seed.

Sucking type of pests (Aphid) attach the crop. Spraying with Endosulfan @ 0.5% or Dimethodate @ 0.2% at fortnighty interval can control the aphids.

8.Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Protein, polysaccharides, cellulose, pectin, oil, muscilage.
9.Post Harvest ManagementCrop matures during March-April (110-130 days). It should be harvested when atmosphere is dry. Harvested plants spread over and after 2 days they are threshed with tractor/bullocks. Pinkish type husk are removed from the seed coat by processing through a series of grinding in mills to separate husk.
10.Cost of cultivationCost of Cultivation = Rs.19320/ha
11Internal consumption and export potentialIsabgol seed 17,680.63 tonnes valued at Rs.14,069.78 lakhs and husk 2580.29 tonnes valued at Rs.1663.73 lakhs exported during the period from April – October, 1997-98. Besides our internal consumption is also quite high.
12.Action and usesDemulcent, cooling, diuretic; used in inflammatory conditions of the mucous membrane of gastro intestinal and genitourinary tracts, in chronic dysentery, diarrhoea and constipation.
13.Parts usedSeeds and seek husk. Used as single drug for cure of constipation and Dysentery.
14.Any other remarksThis crop has good export potential and can be exploited commercially

 

14. JATAMANSI

1.Name of Medicinal PlantNardostachys jatamansi De
2.FamilyValerianaceae
3.Habit and HabitatAn erect perennial herb with long, stout, woody rootstock; found in alpine Himalayas at 3500-5000 m. extending eastwards to Sikkim and Bhutan. The species is vulnerable.
4.Yield

Plant part

Actual Ingredients

Rhizome (1290 kg/ha)

Valeopotriate and Essential Oil

5.Cultural Practices

i.Varieties/Types/Clones

released/identified

Dalhouse clones
 ii.Propagation methods and planting timeSeeds and Roots. Seed nursery preparation in July/Aug. Transplating after 6 – 8 weeks (April/May)
 iii.Fertilizer doses60:20:40 NPK
 iv.Irringation scheduleOne irrigation soon after sowing and 2-3 irrigations during rain free condition.
 v.Dieseases, pests and their controlNo serious pests and diseases.
5.Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Volatile essential oil 0.5%

(Valeopotriates and Valerian oil)

6.Post Harvest ManagementHarvested roots washed and dried in shade condition.
7.Cost of cultivation

(Cost : benefit ratio)

Not commercially cultivated
8.Action and usesAromatic, bitter, tonic, antispasmodic, deobstruent, stimulant, antiseptic, diuretic, emmenagogue. Used in epilepsy, hysteria, chorea, convulsions, palpitation of heart, mental disorders, insomnia.
9.Parts usedRoot-stock
10.Compound PreparationsMansyadi Kwath
11.Any other remarksCrop is not under regular cultivation, so there is a rapid depletion of the plant from its natural sources. Quality degradation under storage is reported.

 

15. KALMEGH

1.Name of Medicinal PlantAndrographis paniculata
2.FamilyAcanthaceae
3.Yield

Plant part

Actual Ingredients

Panchang (Stem, leaf, flower, seed and root)

Kalmeghin Andrographolide (0.8-2.%%). Leaves contains maximum while stem contains minimum amount.

4.Habit and HabitatA small herb found throughout India in plains of Himachal Pradesh to Assam, Mizoram, Gujrat, Bihar and South India.
5.Cultural Practices

i.Varieties/Types/Clones released/identified

Local clones. There is no named variety.
 ii.Propagation methods and Planting timdePropagated by seed and cuttings. Seedlings/plantlets raised in nursery in Iast week of July.
 iii.Fertilizer dosesPoultry manure or FYM 10 t/ha,

Castor cake 2 t/ha, 75 Kg N, 75 Kg P2O5.

 iv.Irrigation scheduleKharif season crop. If rain is inadequate then 2-9 irrigations are given.
6.Post Harvest ManagementCrop duration 90-100 days. Harvesting is done in end of October and 1st week of November. Harvest should be spread over on the floor and it should be covered at night to protect from dew. One week drying under shade is required. Average yield 2-2.5 t/ha dry herb.
7.Cost of cultivation

Gross return

Net return

Rs.10,000/ha

Rs.43,000/ha

Rs.33,000/ha

8.Internal consumption and export potentialAyurvedic formulations for debility, chronic malaria, jaundice, anemia and loss of apetite.

Andrographis preparations in different potencies for Homeopathic medicines.

 

16. KATKI

1.Name of Medicinal PlantPicrohiza Kurroa Royle ex Benth
2.FamilyScrophulariacae
3.Habit and HabitatA perennial herb, found in Alpine Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim at altitudes of 2700 – 4500 m.
4.Cultural Practices

Propagation methods

Through seeds and rhizome
5.Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Bitter glucoside Kutkin (3.4%), Kurrin, (0.5%), Vanillic acid (0.1%).
6.Post Harvest ManagementDrying
7.Action and usesBitter tonic, antiperiodic, cholagogue, stomachic. Used in dyspepsia, fever, diseases of liver & spleen including jaundice, anaemia, scorpion stings and in purgative preparations.
8.Parts usedRoot and rhizome
9.Compound PreparationsArogyavardhani, Katukadya lauha, Tikkadi Kwath, Tiktadighrita
10.Internal consumption and export potentialLimited internal consumption
11.Any other remarksThreatened perennial herb but can be domesticated and cultivated.

 

17. KOKUM

1.Name of Medicinal PlantGarcinia indica Linnacus
2.FamilyClusiaceae
3.Habit and HabitatFrequent in evergreen and deciduous forests along the coasts on winward side of Western Ghats to 400 m.
4.Area under cultivation

Production

1200/ha

10200 t

5.Yield

Plant part

Actual Ingredients

Ripe Fruit, 8.5 t/ha

Hydroxy Citric Acid (HCA)

Cambogin & Camboginol

6.DistributionA tree found in Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, South Gujarat, Assam and West Bengal.
7.Cultural Practices

i.Varieties/Types/Clones

released/identified

Konkan Amrita and local types
 ii.Propagation methods and

planting time

By soft wood grafting,

July – August

 iii.Fertilizer doses20 Kg FYM + 500 gm N + 250 gm P2O5 .
 iv.Irrigation scheduleNormally grown as rainfed crop. Hence regular irrigation is not in vogue for grown up orchards.
 v. Disease and PestsHardy crop. No major disease and pests. Leaf minor and pink disease sometime occurs which can be easily controlled.
8.Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Arabin, essential oil, resin, tartaric, citric and phosporic acids, Hydroxy citric Acid.
9.Post Harvest ManagementHarvesting in March to April. Drying of fruits and bark
10.Cost of cultivation

Net return

Rs.13000/ha

Rs.34300/ha 1:1:37

11.Internal consumption and export potentialFruit mainly used for preparation of value added products like Kokum syrup, dried kokum rind etc. which are consumed within the country. However, kokum seed fat is exported to Netherlands, Italy, Japan, Singapore, U.K and Malaysia. Good export potential.
12.Any other remarksHardy rainfed crop in coastal tropical region in the country. Crop has outs- standing medicinal properties (acidulent, dyscentry, pains, heart problems etc.) and also spice quality.

 

18. KERTH

1.Name of Medicinal PlantSaussurea lappa
2.FamilyCompositae
3.Area under CultivationAbout 100 ha
4.ProductionAbout 200 t
5.Yield

Plant part

Actual ingredients

Tuberous Roots (25000–30000 Kg/ha)

Essential oil (1.5%)

Saussunine (0.05%)

6.Important StatesKashmir valley (J&K)

Lahaul spiti (HP)

Garhwal (UP)

7.Cultural Practices

i.Varieties/Types/Clones

released/identified

Kashmir & Punjab types
 ii.Propagation methods and planting timeSeeds are sown in May
 iii.Irrigation schedule5-6 irrigations between May-September.
 iv.Diseases, pests and their controlNo major pests and diseases
 v.Crop duration3 years.
8.Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Essential oil (1.5%). Essential oil constituents (Aplotaxena 20%, Sesquiterpenes (60%), Saussuine alkaloid, Kushtin, Lactones, Costunolide, Palmitic Acid, Dihydrodehydrocostus, lactone, propyl acetate, lauric acid.
9.Post Harvest ManagementEconomical yield is obtained from 3 year old crop. Root is harvested in early spring. The roots are cleaned with water and dried for processing.
10.Cost of cultivation

(Cost : benefit ratio)

1:3.2 (in 3 years)

Cost of cultivation : Rs.14,000/-

Gross income : Rs. 45,000/-

11.Internal consumption and export potentialExported to China, Japan, Italy and France. Internal consumption is limited.

 

19. LIQORICE

1.Name of Medicinal PlantGlycyrrhiza glabra Linn
2.FamilyPapilionaceae
3.Habit and HabitatA herb, reported to be found in sub-Himalayan tracts. Most of the requirenment of Pharmaceutical industries is met by import only. Recently introduced in Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh and Haryana.
4.Cultural Practices

i.Varieties/Types/Clones

released/identified

Haryana Mulhati No.1 (HM No.1)

EC-111236, EC-124587, EC-21950

 ii.Propagation methods and planting timeBy root cuttings

February-March or July-August

 iii.Fertilizer doses10 t FYM/ha applied at the time of planting Chemical fertilizers: N 80 kg (40 kg basal dose + 20 kg each at 2nd + 3rd year), P2O5 – 40 kg/ha and K2O 20 kg/ha.
 iv.Irrigation scheduleAt 30-45 days intervals in summer or in dry season, 7-8 irrigations are needed.
 v. Diseases, pests and their control

Disease Causal

name Organism

--------------- ---------------------Leaf spot Cercospora

Root rot Rhizoctonia

Collor rot batalicola

Selerotium sps

Wilting Fusarium sps

Leaf spot Alternaria tenius

Control

------------------------------------------------

i) Dithane M-45 or Dithane Z – 78 @ 0.2%.

ii) Bavistine (0.1%) followed by Daltan 0.3%.

Bavistin or benlate before planting Aerial portion should be cut and destroyed.

Carbonxazin 0.5%

Bilitox 0.2%, 3-4 times at an interval of 6 days after appearance of disease symptoms.

 Pests: Attack of terminate has

Observed in light soils

 
 vi. Crop duration2.5 to 3 year
5.Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Glycyrrhizin (12-15%), Flavonoids (Apioliquiretin, liquiritin, Apiossliquiritin, Isoliquiritin, monin, liquisitigenin, Glycycocernarin, Glycysol and Glycyrin).
6.Post Harvest ManagementAfter digging the roots in September, left in the field for sun drying, later the roots are sorted out and cleaned. Dry roots stored in polythene lined bags.
7.Action and usesLaxative, demulcent, emllkient, tonics, aphrodisiac. Used in sore throat, cough, genitourinary diseases, anorexia, asthma, persistent low fever.
8.Compound PreparationsYashtyadi churna, Yashtyadi Kwath, Yashtimadhwadya tails.
9.Internal consumption and export potentialIt is imported (about 5,000 to 10,000 of dry roots annually) from Afghanistan, Iran and Iraq.
10.Any other remarksCultivatrion not yet popularised.

 

20. LONG PEPPER

1.Name of Medicinal PlantLong Pepper (Piper longum Linn)
2.FamilyPiperaceae
3.Habit and HabitatA slender climber with perennial woody roots, found in hotter parts of India with humid damp climate, viz., Western ghats, central Himalayas to Assam, Khasi and Mikir hills and lower hills of Bengal
4.Yield

Plant part

Actual Ingredients

Dry spike 650-700 kg/year/ha

Root yield 500 kg/ha

Piperine (4.5%)

Essential oil 0.7%)

5.Cultural Practices

i.Varieties/Types/Clones

released/identified

Cheemathipali, Viswam
 ii.Propagation methods and planting timeRooted vine cuttings and suckers. Soon after the onset of monsoon
 iii.Fertilizer dosesMostly grown as an under crop on residual fertility. 20 t FYM/ha. Application of inorganic fertilizers are not yet reported.
 iv.Irrigation scheduleDuring summer, one irrigation/week. Sprinkler irrigation is also beneficial.
 v. Diseases, pests and their controlLeaf and vine rot & necrotic spots and blights on leaves (1% spray of Bordeaux mixture). Mealy bug attack (any systemic insecticides). Adults and nymphs of Helopeltis theivora attack (neems seed kernel extract @ 0.25%).
6.Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Piperine and Piplartin
7.Post Harvest ManagementThe first harvest from vines is available after six months of planting. Spike are ready for harvest after two months of formation. Harvested spikes and roots are sundried and stored in moisture proof bags. The produce fetches price according to the grade.
8.Action and usesAlterative, tonic, sedative, vermifuge, cholagogue, emmenagogue. Used in cough, cold, chronic bronchitis, palsy, gout, rheumatism, lumbago, insomnia, epilepsy, asthma, amorexia, piles, dyspepsia, leucoderma.
9.Compound PreparationsGudapippali, Pippalikhanda, Pipalyasva.
10.Internal consumption and export potentialHuge internal consumption. 558.31 t imported in 1995-96 valued at Rs.76.92 lakhs and 38.523 t exported in 1995-96 valued at Rs.17.02 lakhs.

 

21. MADHUNASHINI

1.Name of the Medicinal PlantGymnema Sylvestre R. Br
2.FamilyAsclepiadaceae
3.Plant parts usedLeave and roots
4.Habit and HabitatA perennial climber found in Western Ghats, Konkan, Tamilnadu, Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh.
5.Cultural Practices

i. Varieties/Types/Clones released/identified

Local clones
 ii.Propagation methods and planting timeBy cutting in rainy season
 iii.Fertilizer doses10 g Nitrogen 6 5 g Phosphorous/vine
6.Biochemical Analysis

(Active ingredients)

Gymnemic acid, Quercitol, Lupeol,

B-amyrin, Stigmasterol

7.HarvestingAfter one year leaves are ready for harvesting
8.Harvesting periodSeptember to February
9.Post Harvest ManagementDrying of leaves and roots
10.Action and usesAstringent, stomachic, tonic, refrigerant, antidiabetic. Leaves have a peculiar property neutralising temporarily the taste sensation for sugar and used in diabetis.
11.UsesDiabetes, Liver disorders, cardiac Amenorrhoea, Sec. Amenorrhoea, Cough and Asthma
12.Compound PreparationsSarivadyasava, Sarivadyavaleha, Sarivadi Kwath, Sarivadi vati.

 

22. SATAVARI

1.Name of Medicinal PlantAsparagus racemosus Willd
2.FamilyLiliaceae
3.Habit and HabitatA climber found almost all over India
4.Yield Plant

Actual Ingredients

Tuberous roots (100-150 q/ha 3rd year).

Saponin

5.Cultural Practices

i. Varieties/Types/Clones

ii.Propagation methods and planting time

Local clones

By seeds/adventitious roots

March-April (Sowing)

July-August (Transplanting)

6.Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Shatavarin I, II, III and IV (Roots) Quercetin, rutin and Hyperoside (Flowers and fruits)

Diosgenin and Quercetin – 3

Glucuronide (Leaves)

7.Post Harvest ManagementTuberious roots are ready for harvesting in 3rd year. After harvesting, roots (tuberous) are washed and dried in sun for making of powder.
8.Action and usesAntidiarrhoetic, refrigerant, antidysenteric, diuretic, demulcent, nutritive tonic, galactagogue, aphrodisiac, antispasmodic. Used in consumption, epilepsy, diarrhoea, blood dysentery, haemophilic disorders, swellings.
9.Parts usedRoot
10.Compound PreparationsShatavari ghrita, Naraina taila, Vishnu Tails, Shatmulyadi lauha, Shatavari panaka.

 

23. SHANKAPUSHPI

1.Name of Medicinal PlantConvolvulus pluricaulis
2.FamilyConvolvulaceae
3.DistributionA prostrate perennial herb found all over India, in Lalitpur district found in Talbehat, Meharauni and Lalitpur forest ranges. Present day availability is very low, approximately 50 – 60 quintal per year.
4.Part usedWhole plant
5.Soil typeSandy loams, Block cotton soils Red sandy soils; PH 5.5 to 7. It is also grown in marginal lands with good drainage and some organic matter applied to the soil.
6.Rainfall800 mm – 1200 mm
7.Field preparationDeep ploughing in the month of May and is allowed to weather. 15 tons per hectare farm yard manure is spread out in the field during June before rains. After FYM applied and after on set of monsoons second ploughing is done followed by two cross harrowing. The land is finally divided in to small blocks.
8.SowingThe seeds are broadcast mixing with sand or Line sowing 30 cm x 30 cm also done. After sowing light top dressing of FYM is given. Very light watering is done. Seedlings appear within 30 days.
9.Weeding & HoeingGenerally two weedings & hoeing are given within 40 – 50 days.l
10.HarvestingPlants get flowers in October and seeds developed in December. Crop harvesting period is January to May. Whole plant is dried in shade and is stored for marketing.
11.Biochemical analysis (active ingredientsAlkaloids, Sankhpuspine
12.ActionIntellect promoting, nervine tonic, Expectrorant, Anti-leprotic, Refrigerant
13.UsesInsomnia, Insanity and Epilepsy, Cough, Skin disorders, Hyperpyrexia, General debility

 

24. SAFED MUSLI

1.Name of Medicinal PlantChlorophytum borivillanum
2.FamilyLiliaceae
3.Yield

Plant part

Actual Ingredients

Tuberous roots (1000 kg/ha)

Saponin 2-4%

4.DistributionSouthern Rajasthan, Western M.P and North Gujarat
5.Cultural Practices

i.Varieties/Types/Clones

released/identified

Selections viz. RC-2, RC-16, RC-36, RC-20, RC-23.

RC-37 have been collected and maintained at RAU, Udaipur

 ii.Propagationn methods and planting timeBy seed and by tuberous roots, second week of June
 iii.Fertilizer dosesNo chemical fertilizer tested on thir crop. 10-15 t FYM/ha provides good nutrient status for heatlhy growth.
 iv. Irrigation scheduleFirst irrigation immediately after planting. If there is no rainfall, then irrigation may be done after 10-15 days interval.
 v.Diseases, pests and their control

a)Rotting of root during storage

b) Chlorosis in foilage

Infection of Aspergillus sps and Fusarium sps.

Control : Treatment with thiram and captan at 4.0 g/kg of roots reduced rotting during storage.

This may be due to Iron defiency.

 vi.Crop duration90-110 days
6.Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Carbohydrates 39.10% - 42%

Protein 0.5%

Saponin 2% - 4%

Root fiber 3% - 5%

7.Post Harvest ManagementHarvested roots are spread in the shade for about 4-7 days. Later, fleshy roots separated from the bunches. Slight pressure exerted by thumb and finger on the skin of root so that they get separated and milky white root come out. It should be cleaned and dried for 7-10 days.
8.Cost of cultivation

(Cost : benefit ratio)

Cost of cultivation = Rs.22,000/-

Gross return = Rs.65,000/-

Cost benefit ratio = 1:2:95

9.Internal consumption and export potentialMainly consumed in herbal based pharmaceutical industries. It has large and consistent market demand in the country and current projection of the annual demand is estimated between 300-500 t.
10.Any other remarksSafed musli is a well known tonic and a aphrodiasic drug given to cure general debility and extensively used in Ayurvedic medicines. Still major requirements of the parmaceutical industries is fulfilled through collection from the forest, thus it has become threatened species in India. Effort should be made for its regular cultivation to fulfil the growing demand.

 

25. SENNA

1.Name of Medicinal PlantCassia angustifolia vahi
2.FamilyCaesalpinaceae
3.Area under cultivation25000 ha.
4.ProductionLeaves 22500 t and Pods 7500 t.
5.Yield

Plant part

Actual Ingredients

Leaves 1500-2000 kg/ha and pods 700-1000 kg/ha (Immature)

Sennosides (2.5% in leaf; 3.5-4% in poda)

6.Important StatesTamilnadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Delhi
7.Cultural Practices

i.Varieties/Types/Clones

released/identified

ALFT-2, Tinneyvalley senna and Sona.
 ii.Propagation methods and planting time 1By seed, September-October in Tamilnadu. June – July in Western India.
 iii.Fertilizer doses80 kg of N: 40 kg of P2o5: 20 Kg K2O/ ha. Nitrogen in 4 equal splits (sowing, 30 days thinning stage, after first and second harvest).
 iv.Irrigation scheduleAt sowing and thinning stage.
 v.Diseases, pests and their controlDiseases

a).N.W India – Damping off at seedling stage caused by Rhizoctonia bataticola.

Control – Thiram or Captan 2.5g/kg

b) Dry rot caused by Macrophomina phaseoli

c)Leaf spot caused by Phyllosticta spp. And Cercospora sp.

Control – 0.5% Diathene M-45.

Pests

  1. Green leaf eating caterpillar
  2. Pod borer (0.05% Endosulfan or 0.25% Carbaryl).
 vi. Crop duration130-150 days
8.Biochemical analysis

(Active Ingredients)

Sennosides, A, B, C, D rhein, aloe-amine, Kaempferein and Iso-rhein in free and compound/glycoside forms.
9.Post harvest ManagementShade drying for 3-5 days to bring down to 8% moisture level and light green to greeish yellow colour is preferred.
10.Action and usesLaxative, purgative. Used in constipation.
11.Compound PreparationsYashtyadi churna, Shataskar churna.