INDIA HOME - MEDICINAL PLANTS BOTANICAL GARDEN
573 Common Medicinal Plants Used
in AYURVEDA, UNANI & SIDDHA SYSTEMS


India has a tradition of codified healthcare systems: Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha, which function mainly through (1) folk stream and (2) classical stream. The former, is based on oral traditions, practiced by villagers and the tribal communities while the later comprises the codified systems supported by theoretical knowledge, experimental and philosophical explanations provided by many learned physicians and surgeons of earlier time like Charak, Sushruta, Galen, Rhazes, Avicenna, and others.

The preventive, corrective and curative approaches of health is the basic strength of these systems of medicine.

THE AYURVEDA SYSTEM OF HEALTH AND MEDICINE

AYURVEDA is a Sanskrit word, derived from two roots: ayur, which means life, and veda, means knowledge, literally translated means "science of life". Ayurveda is India’s traditional, natural system of medicine that has been practiced for more than 5,000 years. Ayurveda is the system of health care conceived and developed by the Rishis and natural scientists through centuries of observations, experiments, discussions, and meditations and medical practice, handed down through generations.



THE UNANI SYSTEM OF HEALTH AND MEDICINE

UNANI is derived from the Greek word 'Ionia', the Greek name of the Asia Minor coastline, from the Arabic word for Greece: "al-Yunaan". Unani Medicine also called "Unani-tibb", as a healing system was founded by Hakim Ibn Sina (Avicenna) based on the teachings of Hippocrates and Gallen.

Unani Tibbor Graeco - Arab medicine may be traced to that system of Greek medicine which was developed during the Arab civilization. The Muslims still call it Unani (lonian) medicine out of adherence of its true historial derivation, whereas European historians call it Arab medicine. It is now practiced in the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent.



THE SIDDHA SYSTEM OF HEALTH AND MEDICINE

Siddha medicine is the oldest medical system in the world. Siddha is a Tamil word derived from siddhi-one who has attained perfection in life or heavenly bliss. Practitioners of this system were called siddhars. Wise men who meditated, wrote poems and had healing powers, siddhars were originally devotees of Lord Shiva. In ancient India, 18 important siddhars developed the system, which is why it's called Siddha medicine. It evolved and flourished in south India (Dravidian culture)

The Siddha system is based on the principle that the macrocosm (the universe) and the microcosm (man) are similar. Man is made up of five fundamental elements: earth (solid matter), water (liquid matter), fire (energy), air (gaseous matter) and ethereal space between the other four elements.

Reflecting this theory of cosmic oneness, the five senses of man are said to correspond with the five elements. Ether (akasam) is responsible for hearing; fire (theyu) for sight; air (vayu) for smell; water (appu) for taste; and earth (prithvi) for the sense of touch.


The ancient civilizations developed their systems of medicine (Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha) independent of each other but all of them were predominantly plant based and comprise over 8000 medicinal and aromatic plants species.

According to the all Indian co-ordinate project sponsored by the Ministry of Environment of Forests, New Delhi, 40% of the 16,000 recorded flowering plants in India have ethno-medicinal value, whereas, only 10% of these are used in drug and pharmaceutical industries. Here is a tabular list of 573 Medicinal Plants Used commonly in AYURVEDA, UNANI & SIDDHA Systems of Medicine

573 Common Medicinal Plants Used in AYURVEDA, UNANI & SIDDHA
Abeis webbiana Lindl.Curcuma longa Linn.Orchis latifolia Linn.
Abrus precatorius LinnCurcuma zedoaria Rosc.Orchis laxiflora Linn.
Abutilon indicum(Linn)Sw.Cuscuta epithymum Linn.Origanum vulgare Linn.
Acacia catechu Willd.Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.Oroxylum indicum Vent.
Acacia leucophloea Willd.Cydonia oblonga Mill.Oryza sativa Linn.
Acacia nilotica & sp. indica (Benth) Branan.Cymbopogon citratus (DC)Stapf.Osmanthus fragrans Lour.
Acacia pennata (Linn.) willd.Cymbopogon jwarancusa Schult.Oxalis corniculata Linn.
Acalypha fructicosa forsk.Cymbopogon martini (Roxb.)WatsPaederia foetida Linn.
Acalypha indiaca linn.Cynodon dactylon Linn. Pers.Pandanus odoratissimus Linn.
Achillea millifolium Linn.Cyperus rotundus Linn.Pandanus tectorius Soland ex. Parkinson.
Achyranthes aspera Linn.Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.Papaver somniferum Linn.
Aconitum chasmanthum (Stapf. ex. Volmes)Datura metel Linn.Parmelia perlata Ach.
Aconitum ferox wall.Datura stramonium Linn.Paspalum scrobiculatum Linn.
Aconitum heterophyllum Wall.Daucus carota Linn. Var. Sativa DC.Pastinaca secacul Linn.
Aconitum napellus Linn.Delphinium denudatum Wall.Pavetta indica Linn.
Aconitum palmatum D. Don.Dioscorea bulbifera LinnPavonia odorata Willd.
Acorus calamus Linn.Diospyros tomentosa Roxb.Pedalium murex Linn.
Adenanthera pavomina Linn.Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb.Peganum harmala Linn.
Adhatoda vasica Nees.Dolichos biflorus Linn.Pennisetum glaucum R. Br.
Adhatoda zeylanica Medic.Dolichos lab-lab Linn.Pentatropsis micrphylla W. & A.
Adiantum capilus veneris Linn.Dorema ammoniacum D.Don.Pergularia extensa N.E. BR.
Aegle marmelos Corr.Doronicum hookeri Hook.f.Peristrophe bicalyculata Nees.
Aerva lanata juss.Dracaena cinnabari Balf.f.Petroselinum crispum Mill Nym.ex. auct. Kew.
Aesulus hippocastanum Linn.Dracocephalum maldavica Linn.Peucedanum graveolens Linn.
Agaricus alba Linn.Dryopteris filix-mas (Linn.) Schott.Phaseolus trilobus Ait.
Agave americana Linn.Eclipta alba Hassk.Phaseolus radiatus Linn.
Ailanthus excelsa Roxb.Elaeocarpus ganitrus Linn.Phoenix dactylifera Linn.
Alangium salviifolium Linn.Elettaria cardamomum Maton.Phyla nodiflora (L) Greene.
Albizzia lebbeck BenthEmbelia ribes Burm.f.Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Linn.
Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb.) Desv.Emblica officinalis Gaertn.Phyllanthus niruri Linn.
Allium ascalonicum Linn.Enicostemma littorale Blume.Physalis alkekengi Linn.
Allium cepa Linn.Eriodendron anfractuosum DC.Picrorhiza kurroa Royle.ex.Benth.
Allium sativum LinnErythrina indica Lam.Pimpinella anisum Linn.
Alocaia indica schult.Euphorbia antiquorum Linn.Pinus gerardiana Wall.
Aloe barbadensis Mill.Euphorbia hirta Linn.Pinus roxburghii Sargent.
Alpinia galanga Linn.Euphorbia nerifolia Linn.Pinus succinifera Linn.
Alpinia speciosa schum.Euphorbia nivulia Buch-Ham.piper attenuatum Ham.
Alstonia scholaris R.Br.Euphorbia resinifera Berg.Piper betle Linn.
Althea officinalis Linn.Euphorbia royleana Boiss.Piper chaba Hunter.
Amaranthus polygonoides Linn.Euphorbia thomsoniana Boiss.Piper cubeba Linn. f.
Amaranthus tricolor Linn.Euphorbia thymifolia Linn.Piper longum Linn
Amaranthus tristis willd.Euphorbia tirucalli Linn.Piper nigrum Linn
Amomum subulatum Roxb.Euryale ferox Salisb.Piper retrofractum
Amorphophallus campanularus (Roxb) BLEvolvulus alsinoides Linn.Pistacia integerrima Stew.ex. Brandis.
Amorphophallus Sylaticus (Roxb.) Kunth.Evolvulus emarginatus Burm.Pistacia lentiscus Linn.
Anacyclus pyrethrum DC.Fagonia cretica Linn.Pistacia vera Linn.
Ananas comosus Merr.Feronia limonia (Linn.) Swingle.Pistia stratiotes Linn.
Andrographis paniculata Nees.Ferula asafoetida Boiss.Pisum sativum Linn.
Anethum Sowa Kurz.Ferula foetida Regel.Plantago lanceolata Linn.
Angelica archangelica Linn.Ferula galbaniflua Boiss et Buhse.Plantago major Linn.
Anogeissus latifolia Wall.Ferula jaeschkeana Vatke.Plantago ovata Forsk.
Anthemis nobilis Linn.Ficus arnottiana Miq.Pluchea lanceolata Oliver & Hiern.
Anthocephalus cadamba Miq.Ficus bengalensis Linn.Plumbago indica Linn.
Apium graveolens Linn.Ficus gibbosa Blume.Plumbago zeylanica Linn.
Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.Ficus hispida Linn.f.Plumeria alba Linn.
Areca catechu Linn.Ficus lacor Buch. Ham.Polygonatum cirrhifolium Royle .
Argemone mexicana Linn.Ficus oppositifolia Willd.Polygonum bestorta Linn.
Argyreia speciosa Sweet.Ficus racemosa Linn.Polypodium vulgare Linn.
Aristolochia bracteata Retz.Ficus religiosa Linn.Pongamia pinnata (L.)Merr.
Aristolochia indica Linn.Flacourtia cataphracta Roxb.Pontederia vaginalis Burm. f.
Aristolochia longa Linn.Foeniculum vulgare Mill.Portulaca oleracea Linn.
Aristolochia rotunda Linn.Fumaria parviflora Lam.Primula vulgaris Huds.
Artemesia absinthium Linn.Garcinia hanburii Hask.Prunus avium Linn.
Artemesia meritima Linn.Garcinia indica Chois.Prunus amygdalus Batsch
Artemesia vulgaris Linn.Garcinia pedunculata Roxb.Prunus cerasoides D.Don.
Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb.Gardenia gummiferra Linn. f.Psoralea corylifolia Linn
Asarum europaeum Linn.Gentiana kurroo Royle.Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.
Asparagus officinalis Linn.Glinus lotoides Linn.Pterocarpus santalinus Linn. f.
Asparagus racemosus Willd.Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.Ptychotis ajowan DC.
Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav.Gmelina arborea Linn.Pueraria tuberosa DC.
Asteracantha Longifolia Nees.Gmelina asiatica Linn.Punica granatium Linn.
Astragalus hamosus Linn.Gossypium herbaceum Linn.Pygmacopremna herbacea(Roxb.) Moldenne.
Astragalus sarcacola Dymock.Gracicilaria confervodiesRandia dumetorum Lam.
Atropa acuminata Royle.Grewia asiatica Linn.Raphanus sativus Linn.
Atropa belladona Linn.Grewia populifolia Vahl.Raphanus vulgaris
Azadirachta Indica A. Juss.Guruga pinnata Roxb.Rheum emodi Wall.
Azima tetracantha Lam.Gynandropsis gynandra (Linn.) Briquet.Rheum officianale Baillon.
Bacopa monnieri (Linn) Pennel.Gynmema sylvestre R.Br.Rheum palmatum Linn.
Baliospermum montanum Muell. Arg.Habenaria intermedia D.Don.Rhus coriaria Linn.
Balsamodendron candatum.Hamelomena aromaticaRhus parviflora Roxb.
Bambusa bambos Druce.Hedychium spicatum Ham.ex. Smith.Rhus succedanea Linn.
Barleria prionitis Linn.Helicteres isora Linn.Ricinus communis Linn.
Barringtonia acutangula Gaertn.Helleborus niger Linn.Rosa alba Linn.
Bauhinia racemosa Lam.Hemidesmus indicus R. Br.Rosa centifolia Linn.
Bauhinia variegata LinnHibiscus rosa - sinensis Linn.Rosa damascena Mill.
Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn.Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.Rosa gallica Linn.
Berberis aristata DC.Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall.Rubia cordifolia Linn.
Bergenia ligulata (Wall) Engl.Holoptelea integrifolia Planch.Rubia tinctorium Linn.
Blepharis edulis Pers.Hordeum vulgare Linn.Ruellia strepens Linn.
Blumea balsamifera Dc.Hydnocarpus laurifolia (Dennst.) Sleumer.Rumex maritimus Linn.
Boerhaavia diffusa Linn.Hydnocarpus venenata Gaertn.Rumex vesicarius Linn.
Boerhaavia verticilata Poir.Hygrophilla auriculata (Sch.) Heine.Ruta graveolens Linn.
Borago officinalis Linn.Hyoscyamus niger Linn.Saccharum munja Roxb.
Borassus flabellifer Linn.Hyssopus officinalis Linn.Saccharum officinarum Linn.
Boswellia serrata Roxb.Illicium verum Hook.f.Salix alba Linn.
Brassica nigra (Linn) Hook.Imperata cylindrica Beauv.Salix caprea Linn.
Brassica rapa Linn.Indigofera aspalathoides vahl ex DC.Salmalia malabarica schott. & Endl.
Brucea sativa Mill.Indigofera tinctoria Linn.Salvadora persica Linn.
Bryonopis laciniosa (L.) Naud.Inula racemosa Hook.f.Salvia aegyptiaca Linn.
Buchanania angustifolia Roxb.Iondium suffruticosum Ging.Salvia haematodes M.
Buchanania lanzan spreng.Ipomoea digitata Linn.Santalum album Linn.
Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntze.Ipomoea hederacea Jacq.Saraca indica Linn.
Cadaba farinosa Forsk.Iris ensata Thunb.Sarcostemma brevistigma W. & A.
Caesalpinia bonducella Flem.Jasminum grandiflorum Linn.Satureja hortensis Linn.
Caesalpinia crista Linn.Jasminum officinale LinnSaussurea hypoleuca Spreng.
Caesalpinia sappan Linn.Jatropha curcus Linn.Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke.
Cajanus cajan (Linn) Millsp.Jatropha glandulifera Roxb.Schizachyrum exile (Hochst) Stapf.
Calamus rotang Linn.Juglans regia Linn.Schrebera swietenioides Roxb.
Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl.Juniperus communis Linn.Selinium tenuifolium Wall.
Calotropis gigantea (Linn) R. Br. ex. Ait.Jussiea saffruticosa Linn.Semecarpus anacardium Linn.f.
Calotropis procera (Ait) R.Br.Lactuca sativa Linn.Sesamum indicum Linn.
Calycopteris floribunda Lam.Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.Sesbania grandiflora (Linn.) Pers.
Cannabis sativa Linn.Lallemantia royleana Benth.Sesbania rantifolia
Capparis sepiariaLamprachaeniam microcephalum Benth.Sesbania sesban (Linn.) Merr.
Capparis spinosa Linn.Lannea grandis (Dennst.) Engl.Shorea robusta Gaertn. f.
Capparis Zeylanica Linn.Laportea crenulata Gaud.Sida acuta Burm.
Capsicum annum Linn.Lasia aculeata Linn.Sida cordifolia Linn.
Cardiospermum helicacabum Linn.Laurus nobilis Linn.Sida rhombifolia Linn.
Careya arborea Roxb.Lavandula stoechas Linn.Sida veronicaefolia Lam.
Carica papaya Linn.Lawsonia alba Lam.Smilax china Linn.
Carissa carandas Linn.Lawsonia inermis Linn.Solanum indicum Linn.
Carthamus tinctorius Linn.Lens culinaris medic.Solanum nigrum Linn.
Carum carvi Linn.Leonotis nebetaefolia R. Br.Solanum torvum Swartz.
Cassia absus Linn.Leonurus cardiaca Linn.Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad & Wendl.
Cassia angustifolia Vahl..Lepidium sativum Linn.Sphaeranthus amaranthoidas Burm.
Cassia fistula Linn.Leptadenia reticulata W. & A.Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.
Cassia occidentalis Linn.Leucas aspera spreng.Stereospermum suaveolens DC.
Cassia tora Linn.Lilium polyphyllum D. Don.Streblus asper Lour.
Cedrus deodar (Roxb.) Loud.Limona acidissima W. & A.Strychnos ignatti Berg.
Celastrus peniculatus willd.Linum usitatissimum Linn.Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.
Centella asiatica (Linn) Urban.Lippia nodiflora Mich.Strychnos potatorum Linn. f.
Centipeda minima (Linn.) A.Br. et Aschers.Liquidambar orientalis Miller.Styrax benzoin Dryand.
Centratherum anthelminticum (Willd) Kuntze.Litsea chinensis Lam.Swertia chirata Buch.Ham.
Ceratonia siliqua Linn.Lodoicea maldivica Pers.Symplocos racemosus Roxb.
Cheiranthus cheiri Linn.Luffa acutangula (Linn.)Roxb.Syzygium aromaticum Merr & L.M.Perry.
Chevica roxburghii Miq.Lupinus albus Linn.Syzygum cumini (Linn.) Skeels.
Chlorophytum arundinaceum BakerLycium barbarum Linn.Tamarindus indica Linn.
Chrysanthemum indicum Linn.Madhuca indica J.F.Gmel.Tamarix articulata Vahl.
Cicer arietinum Linn.Madhuca longifolia (Kaenig) Macbr.Tamarix gallica Linn.
Cinchona officinalis Linn.Mallotus phillippinensis Muell.Arg.Taraktogenos kurzii King.
Cinnamomum cassia Blume .Malus sylvestris Mill.Taxus baccata Linn.
Cinnamomum camphora Nees & Eberm.Malva sylvestris Linn.Tecomella undulata (G.Don.)Seem.
Cinnamomum tamala Nees & Eberm.Mangifera indica Linn.Tephrosia purpurea (L.)Pers.
Cipadessa fruticosa Bl.Manilkara kauki Dub.Tephrosia spinosa Pers.
Cissampelos pareira Linn.Maranta arundinacea Linn.Terminalia arjuna W.& A.
Cissus quadrangularis Linn.Marsdenia tenacissima Wight & Arn.Terminalia bellerica Roxb.
Cissus setosa Roxb.Mathiola Incana R.Br.Terminalia chebula Retz.
Citrullus colocynthis Schrad.Matricaria chamomilla Linn.Teucrium chamaedrys Linn.
Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.Melia azedarach Linn.Thalictrum foliolosum DC.
Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swingle.Melilotous alba Desv.Thespesia populnea soland ex correa.
Citrus aurantium Linn.Melissa parviflora Benth.Thymus serpyllum Linn.
Citrus limon (Linn.)Burm. f.Melothria maderaspatana (Linn) Cogn.Tinospora cordifolia (Willd) Miers.
Citrus medica LinnMelothria perpusilla Cogn.Toddalia asiatica Lam.
Citrus reticulata Blanco.Mentha arvensis Linn.Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.)Sprague.
Cleome icosandra Linn.Merremia tridentata Hallier f.Trachyspermum roxburghiamum (D.C.) Sprague
Clerodendrum inerme (Linn.) Gaertn.Mesua ferrea Linn.Tragia involucrata Linn.
Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn.f.Michelia champaca Linn.Trapa bispinosa Roxb.
Clerodendrum serratum (Linn)Moon.Microstylis muscifera Ridl.Trianthema portulacastrum Linn.
Clitoria ternatea Linn.Microstylis wallichii Lindl.Trianthema decandra Linn.
Coccinia cordifolia Cogn.Mimosa pudica Linn.Tribulus terrestris Linn.
Coccinia indica W & A.Mimusops elengi Linn.Tricholepis angustifolia DC.
Cochlospermum religosum (Linn) Alston.Mirabilis jalapa Linn.Trichosanthes bracteata (Lam) voigt.
Cocos nucifera Linn.Mollugo cerviana Ser.Trichosanthes cucumerina Linn.
Colchicum luteum Baker.Momordica charantia Linn.Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.
Coldenia procumbens Linn.Moringa oleifera Linn.Trifolium alexandricum Linn.
Coleus amboinicus Lour.Morus acedosa Griff.Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn.
Coleus vettiveroides K.C. Jacob.Mucuna prurita HookTrigonella uncata Boiss.
Commiphora mukul (Hook ex stocks) Engl.Murraya koenigii Spreng.Triticum aestivum Linn.
Commiphora myrrha (Nees)Engl.Musa paradisiaca Linn.Typhonium trilobatum (Linn.) Schott.
Commiphora opobalsamum (Linn.)Engl.Myrica nagi Thunb.Uraria picta Desv.
Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy.Myristica fragrans Houtt.Usnea longissima Asch.
Convolvulus scaonia Linn.Myrtus communis Linn.Valeriana wallichii DC.
Coptis teeta wallNarcissus tazetta Linn.Vateria indica Linn.
Cordia dichotama forst.f.Nardostachys jatamansi DC.Vernonia cinerea Less.
Coriandrum sativum Linn.Nasturtium officinale R.Br.Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn.)Nash.
Corrallocarpus epigaeus Benth ex.Hook f.Nelumbo nucifera GaertnVicia faba Linn.
Corylus avellana Linn.Nepeta Cataria Linn.Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper.
Coscinium fenestratum Colebr.Nepeta hindostana (Roth.) Haines.Viola odorata Linn.
Crataeva nurvala Buch-Ham.Nerium indicum Linn.Vitex negundo Linn.
Crotalaria juncea Linn.Nicotiana tabacum Linn.Vitis vinifera Linn.
Croton tiglium Linn.Nigella sativa Linn.Withania somnifera Dunal.
Cryptolepis buchanani Roem & Schult.Nymphaea alba Linn.Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz.
Ctenolepis cerasiformis Naud.Nymphaea lotus Linn.Wrightia tinctoria R.Br.
Cucumis melo var. utilissimus Duthie & Fuller.Nymphaea stellata Willd.Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb.
Cucumis sativus Linn.Ocimum basillicum Linn.Zataria multiflora Boiss
Cucurbita moschata Duchesne.Ocimum gratissimum Linn.Zingiber officinale Rosc.
Cuminum cyminum Linn.Ocimum sanctum Linn.Zingiber officinarum.
Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.Oldenlandia umbellata Linn.Zingiber zerumbet Rosc ex. Smith.
Curcuma amada Roxb.Olea europaea Linn.Zizyphus jujuba Linn.
Curcuma angustifolia Roxb.Onosma bracteatum Wall.Zizyphus sativa Gaertn.
Curcuma aromatica Salisb.Operculina turpethum (Linn.) Silva Manso.Zizyphus xylopyra willd.